Классики о природе

Участок не имеет особого защитного значения и статуса особо охраняемой природной территории, также не относится к особоценным землям, защитным участкам лесов. Памятников природного, культурного и архитектурного наследия на участке и прилегающей территории не имеется. Территория объекта изысканий не попадает в водоохранную зону р.Клязьма.

  WASTE MANAGEMENT IN GREAT BRITAIN

A.V.Malachenkova ,  G.S.Kliaguine  (Donetsk National Technical University)

         Проблема відходів існує у кожній країні . Але не всі приділяють їй достатньо уваги. У статті розглядаються шляхи вирішення даної проблеми у Великобританії. Розкривається структура  організації  збору   та видаленню  відходів і роль держави та звичайної людини у цьому процесі.

I am going to tell you about England, English people and their attitude to England’s natural environment. If you look at the map of Europe you will see that Great Britain is not large. It takes 6 hours to travel in a fast train, from London, the capital of England, to Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The population of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is over 57 million people.

First course that you notice when you have arrived in England is the fact that in Britain traditions play more important part in the life of people than in other countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. One of the traditions is to take care about their land, nature and environment as a whole.

            So in England you can enjoy not only the politeness of people (they often say "Thank you", "Sorry", "Beg your pardon"). It’s real pleasure to take a walk along clean and well-groomed streets, to see tidy and cozy houses. For us it’s a beautiful view, for Englishmen it’s an everyday work.

In Great Britain people are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not somebody else's a long time ago. They established various organizations and green parties. There are a lot of sites where inhabitants can learn about every environmental problem and take part in their solution.

The problem of waste is huge in England as well as in other countries. The UK produces around 330 million tonnes of waste annually - a quarter of which is from households and business. The rest comes from construction and demolition, sewage sludge, farm waste and spoils from mines and dredging of rivers. Each household produces about one tonne of rubbish annually. Each year in the UK households throw away over 29.1 million tonnes of waste, that's the same weight as 4.85 million male African Elephants!

The amount of rubbish disposable is increasing. Today's rubbish compared to pre-1960s rubbish, contains more products that don't break down when they're put in the ground.

It is necessary to increase the amount of rubbish that is recycled. England’s government are thinking all the time of ways they can reduce the amount of rubbish which is producing and increase the amount which reuse and recycle.

It was defined that for these changes they need to:

·         collect more rubbish in recycling bins and on doorsteps ready to be recycled;

·          build more recycling plants;

·          educate people about recycling;

·         make sure there are enough rubbish trucks to collect the recyclable rubbish;

·         find ways of using the recycled material by making it into useful items.

Now English people use three different rubbish bins: green, blue and brown. The green bin recycling scheme was introduced in 2003/04 to half of the properties across the borough approximately. These can go into the green bin: Glass Bottles and Jars (rinse); Plastic Bottles (please remove lids and squash the bottles); Clean Plastic Film - e.g toilet roll wrapping and carrier bags (No film that has come into contact with food); Food and Drinks Cans (please rinse).



Picture 1 – Green and blue rubbish bins

What can be put in the blue bin: Newspapers; Magazines; Junk Mail; Blue Telephone Directories; Yellow Pages; Envelopes (except windowed envelopes); Catalogues; Letters and general paper; Yellow Pages - yellow pages can now be put into the blue bin. What can’t be put in the blue bin: Cardboard; Plastic Wrappers; General Household Rubbish.
Tameside Council have introduced a Brown Bin service for the collection of garden waste (2006). What can be put in the brown bin: Grass Cuttings; Leaves; Dead Plants; Hedge Trimmings; Small Twigs; Weeds; Small Branches. What can’t be put in the brown bin: Kitchen or Food Waste; Soil or Turf; Stones/Hardcore; Flower Pots/Seed Trays; Large Branches; Wood; Household Waste; Metal or Glass Objects; Plastic Bags; Pet Bedding.

By this way inhabitants understand the first stage of household waste management. Then waste carriers collect hazardous waste from waste producers and take it to waste disposal facilities (for all types of waste). They need to know the type of waste and whether the landfill will accept it. The waste carrier takes it to an appropriate waste disposal site. The most common types are landfills but other methods include re-cycling plants, incinerators and composting.



Picture 2 -  Waste Management Trends 1998/9 to 2005

On this diagram we can see the overall pattern of decline in landfill inputs and growth in treatment and transfer activity in 1998 - 2005. Landfill inputs are down 15% over the whole period. Transfer inputs are up 15% (6 million tonnes). Incineration inputs increased 52% (1.3 million tonnes) as additional capacity came on stream in cement kilns and other new facilities.

Overall hazardous waste capacity increased 3 times and energy recovery capacity doubled. There was an apparent doubling of treatment inputs with an increase of 14 million tonnes. This is, however, somewhat misleading as 6 million tonnes of this increase occurred at one waste/water treatment facility in the North East. A better estimate of treatment growth over the period would be around 60%.

Waste management is an ongoing process that can be as wide reaching as is necessary. And English government is making every effort in following to this. That is supported by inhabitants.

A nation is born from its land, its history, its art, its traditions and its institutions. These things work together to make people what they are. But above all, a nation is made up of people, and although there are things they all share, all of those people are different. And we can say that "British nation" consist of people which respect their culture, traditions and land where they are living. Now they don't only accumulate the experience and wisdom of many generations, but they bring new knowledges and experiences in the domain of saving environment for their and their children's stability into the rapidly changing world.

So we can make the conclusion: the cleaning of planet depends on the person’s culture and his world view.

http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk

http://www.study.ru

http://www.native-english.ru

http://www.recycle-more.co.uk/

http://www.fermanagh.gov.uk/
 
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